Baking Basics

Flour Types

When you think about all the different bakery products you like to eat…it starts to make sense why these are made with more than one type of flour….

It is very important to use the right kind of flour when baking as each has a specific purpose.

Standard or plain flour, also called soft flour, is made from soft wheat varieties and has a low protein content. It is used for making cakes and biscuits as it gives the baked product a tender texture. Cake flour for traditional cakes should be very fine, white and clean. This enables it to hold more liquid.

Sponge Cake

Self-raising flour
is made by combining flour with baking powder or a similar chemical aerating agent. These are sifted together many times until they are thoroughly combined and the baking powder is evenly distributed through the flour. This kind of flour is perfect for making pikelets and scones

Flour Based Recipes


This Master Muffin Recipe can be easily adapted, try rolled oats in place of the baking bran or flours, substitute your favourite dried fruit, nuts or seeds and try cooked apple or pear instead of banana.

Baking Recipes

High grade or “strong” flour. Also called Baker’s Flour is made from semi-hard wheat and has a medium to high protein content. It is used for making bread.

Pastry flour
has a high protein content and should be very white and free of any bran particles to ensure a good pastry product.

Wholemeal flour
contains all parts of the wheat grain. It is used in various baked products, including cakes, biscuits, slices, scones and muffins.

Bleached flour is used for making bread in USA and other countries. This type of flour has been treated with chlorine to speed up the natural lightening and maturing of flour. Bleached flour is not permitted for use in New Zealand bread.

Storage of flour
Flour should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place in the pantry. It is best not to mix old and new flour in the container. Just buy enough flour that will be used over two or three months. A good way to keep flour fresh for longer is to pack flour into air lock bags and store it in the freezer.

School Zone

Ingredients and their uses

We explain the different ingredients used to make a range of bakery products and their functions in the recipes.

Ingredients and their uses